Several Bone Density Measurements to Diagnose Several Types of Problems

Bone density refers to the amount of matter per square centimeter of bone. But in view of radiology this definition is not perfect. The scaling procedure adopted under the radiology is called densitometry. This technology is mainly used for the treatment of osteoporosis- a disease in which the bones become fragile and stay at a high risk of breakage. This measurement process is painless and non-invasive and involves minimal radiation exposure. Bone density measurements are commonly made over the lumber spine and over the upper part of the hip. The average bone density is around 1500 kg m-3.

The bone density scanning, also considered as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bone densitometry, is an enhanced form to measure bone loss. It has established the standard form of measurement that involves X-rays to produce clear image of the inside of the body. To measure bone density we use peripheral devices that use X-ray or ultrasound. Sometimes a CT scan with special software can also be taken in the treatment. This radiotherapy accurately calculates the density of the bone minerals like calcium.

There are certain measurements for calculating bone density, such as:

Ultrasound Tests- It is a very basic bone density test that is performed in order to cure any primary bone related problem. The ultrasound machine uses sound waves of different frequencies through water or air. This painless treatment has no harmful radiations.

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)-
The DEXA test uses two different X-ray beams to image bone density. The amount of light passes through the soft bone tissues and can identify even less than 2% loss of bone density. It is more expensive than ultrasound testing.

Peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (P-DEXA)- This form of DEXA test is mainly performed to measure the density of the bones in arm, legs and wrists. The P-DEXA test is unable to find the effect of medication of the bines so that it is not as popular as DEXA test.

Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA test)- The DPA test is used to estimate bone density in the hip and spinal region. This test uses low and certain radioactive elements for bone density measurement.

Quantitative computer tomography scan (Q-CT scan)- The Q-CT scan is considered to measure the bone density in the vertebral (spinal) region. It uses a high amount of radiation and its accuracy is comparatively less.


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