Fibromuscular Dysplasia Causes Serious Symptoms Due To Insufficient Blood Flow In Visceral Arteries

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a vascular disease that can cause narrowing the visceral arteries in the kidney. It affects small to medium-sized vessels and carotid arteries supplying the brain and the arteries of the abdomen. Fibromuscular dysplasia can cause hypertension, heart attacks, strokes, and arterial swelling. It is a noninflammatory and nonatherosclerotic condition that occurs more frequently in younger individuals and women.

This disease is an uncommon angiopathy of uncertain etiology associated with heterogeneous histologic changes that may damage the carotid and vertebral circulation, visceral arteries as well as peripheral arteries. The presence of fibromuscular dysplasia has been demonstrated in almost every vascular bed. Renal artery involvement is most common (60-75%), followed by the cervicocranial arteries (25-30%), visceral arteries (9%). The diagnosis is most often made by the characteristics angiographic appearance. The frequency with which FMD affects that renal artery varies person to person. The disease ultimately results stenosis, causing organ ischemia or infarction. FMD causes many symptoms, if the blood flow is not enough. It is probably diagnosed incidentally in the absence of any sign or symptoms during an imaging study.   

The most preferred treatment for refractory cases is balloon angiography. In case the arterial wall is damaged or weakened, then stenting method can be applied for effective result. With the help of bypass surgery and vein replacement fibromuscular dysplasia (Visceral Arteries) can be treated considerably. Intravascular ultrasound may help in distinguishing FMD from vasculitis in some cases. The active vasculitis is usually treated with corticosteroids with or without cytotoxic agents, though there is no such therapy in FMD. This condition is frequently confused with vasculitis, atherosclerosis, and congenial vascular diseases.  

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