Medical Ultrasonography For Imaging Internal Organs Of The Body
Medical Ultrasonography is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used to visualize body structures including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels for possible pathology lesions.
In 1953, ultrasonography was invented at Lund University by cardiologist Inge Edler and Carl Hellmuth Hertz, a graduate student studying nuclear physics.
Medical Ultrasonography is extensively used in medicine to perform diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. Generally, diagnostic sonographic scanners function in the frequency range of 2 to 18 Megahertz. However, frequencies in the range of 50 to 100 Megahertz have been used in biomicroscopy. The frequency range is chosen keeping in mind the between spatial resolution of the image and imaging depth.
Nowadays, medical Ultrasonography is used in Cardiology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Gynecology, Obstetrics, Ophthalmology, Urology and Anesthesia. For imaging body structures such as muscles, tendons, testes, breast and the neonatal brain, higher frequency in the range of 7-18 Megahertz is used to ensure better axial and lateral resolution. Body structures such as liver and kidney are imaged at a lower frequency range of 1 to 6 MHz that results in lower axial and lateral resolution but greater penetration.
In Medical Ultrasonography, a probe containing one or more acoustic transducers is used to send sound pulses into a material. When sound waves encounter a material with different acoustical impedance, an echo is generated that is detected by the probe. The time required for the echo to travel back to the probe is measured to calculate the depth of the tissue.
Medical Ultrasonography, known for its multi-functionality is considered to be an indispensible tool for imaging internal organs of the body.