Multinuclear Imaging: A Greater Help to Extract Images in Magnetic Resonance Technique
The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) technique is primarily used in radiology to visualize the internal parts of the body. It provides clear images, through multinuclear imaging, of the body organs that is difficult to find through computed tomography (CT) dose. The Hydrogen is the most frequently imaged nucleus in MRI because it is present in great abundance in the biological tissues. In the ionized radiation, the powerful magnetic field aligns the nuclear magnetization of hydrogen atoms in water present in the body. These radiofrequency signals can be manipulated by additional magnetic fields to get information to construct images of the body organs.
Sodium and phosphorous are naturally abundant elements in the body, so that it can be imaged directly by multinuclear imaging system. However any nucleus which has a net nuclear spin could be imaged with the help of MRI technique. Some more nuclei include helium, carbon, fluorine, oxygen and xenon. Helium and Xenon must be hyperpolarized and then inhaled as their nuclear density is too low to yield useful signal under normal conditions. Oxygen, carbon and fluorine can be administered in sufficient quantities in liquid form that hyperpolarization is not necessary.
Multinuclear imaging is basically a research technique of the present time that includes functional imaging and imaging of organs. The images are poorly seen on lungs and bone. The inhaled hyperpolarized helium can be used to image out the distribution of air spaces within the lungs. Injectable solutions of carbon or stabilized bubble of hyperpolarized xenon have been studied as contrast agents for angiography and perfusion imaging. Phosphorous can yield enough information on bone density and structure and functional imaging of the brain.