Bone Density Tests Helps To Determine the Stage of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis refers to the disease of bone that causes an increased risk of fractures that are the most dangerous, particularly in women older than 60. In this disease, the bone mineral density is reduced and amount of proteins in bone is altered. The bone density test is used to measure the intensity of osteoporosis. It indicates the osteoporosis and fractures risk. There are some effective bone scanning technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray, computed tomography and ultrasound. At present, the most widely used technique is Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) that can determine efficiency in the clinical trials.

Ultrasound scanning can scale quality of bone mass. The advanced ultrasound techniques, such as quantitative ultrasound (QUS), are promising to give improved accuracy in predicting fractures when used with DEXA. Ultrasound is not as expensive as DEXA and it uses no radiation. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans, a form of CT scans, can produce detailed information about spinal density useful for the treatment of osteoporosis. It renders higher doses of radiation than the other bone density tests.

Osteoporosis is diagnosed when bone density is below the point where fractures will happen with mild stress. The nuclear medicine scanning technique is performed for the bone re-building activity with the help of radiopharmaceuticals. During the osteoporosis bone density imaging procedure, a small amount of radioactive material 600 MBq of technetium-99m-MDP is inserted into the body. This material emits energy that can be scanned with a gamma camera. The density is measured into two types of scores called T score and Z score. They are based on the statistical unit of the standard deviations below the average for a young at peak bone density.

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